Author/year Design Setting Population/ sample Intervention(s) or Goal Outcome Results Strengths/ Weaknesses Implications
Marcantonio et al., 2022[@192886] Prospective diagnostic test study 2 hospitals in NE U.S. 527 patients and 399 clinicians Establish diagnostic accuracy of smart tablet-based delirium assessment protocol Accuracy of assessment protocol compared to research standard delirium assessment UB-2 Accuracy: 69% CNA’s, 73% nurses, 70% physicians
2-step protocol accuracy: 89% nurses, 87% physicians
Large sample, clinicians blinded to standard assessment results

Few assessments per provider, limited provider training
Smart tablet app-based delirium identification protocol was feasible, quick, and accurate.
Van Sleuwan et al.,
Retrospective, single centre, observational cohort study Single, academic hospital in NE U.S. 373 adults undergoing EEG to evaluate altered mental status Development of EEG tool to quantify delirium severity Correlation of E-CAM (EEG tool) with CAM-S E-CAM-S scores correlate with clinical CAM-S scores (r=0.68; p < 0.001) Automated EEG approach

Heterogeneous sample, single centre, CAM-S performed by multiple providers
E-CAM-S is a promising automated tool for physiologically based monitoring of delirium severity
Yang et al., 2021[@192888] Human cell and mouse study Academic centre in U.S. Inbred C57B/L6J and Cx3cr1GFP mice (males and females; 12-16 weeks old) Determine effects of omega-3 fatty acids on neuroimmune interactions after orthopaedic surgery Multiple, including measure of delirium like behavior in mice and development of BBB-on-chip platform Omega-3 fatty acids reduced delirium-like behavior and blood-brain-barrier impairment Novel, new BBB-on chip platform

Focused on IL-1\(\beta\) as while the immune response in delirium is complex. Preclinical nature limits clinical applications currently
BBB-on-chip device with primary human cells can be used to characterise neuroimmune interactions
Omega-3 fatty acids may protect the BBB from surgery-induced neuroinflammation and protect against surgery-induced attention deficits