Author/year Design Setting Population/ sample Intervention(s) Outcome Results Strengths/ Weaknesses Implications
Deeken et al., 2022[@192881] Stepped-wedge cluster RCT 5 German tertiary medical centres 1470 patients, aged 70 years or older undergoing elective surgery Multi-component delirium prevention program Postoperative delirium incidence Unadjusted relative risk [RR], 0.67 [95%CI, 0.48 to 0.93] in noncardiac surgery patients Large study with validated assessment tool

No effect on delirium in patients undergoing cardiac surgery
Multi-component delirium prevention program reduced delirium incidence in noncardiac surgery patients
Park et al.,
Retrospective case-control study Single, level 1 trauma centre in U.S. 712 patients aged 65 years or older seen for traumatic injury, not undergoing an operation Implementation of geriatric best practices Delirium incidence Adjusted odds ratio [OR], 0.54 [95%CI, 0.37 to 0.80] Broad inclusion criteria

Assessments performed by nursing staff could cause heterogeneity, pre-post design
Multidisciplinary clinical pathway for injured older adults was associated with reduced delirium incidence
Zhang et al., 2021[@192884] Double blinded, RCT Single level 1 trauma centre in China 170 children (aged 3-7) undergoing ENT surgery Pre-operative breathing training Emergence delirium 10.4% (intervention) vs 35.1% (control) delirium incidence p<0.001 Novel, well-match groups

Small sample, single centre study could limit external validity
Breathing training during the preoperative visit in decreased incidence of emergence delirium.